How to Reduce the Complexity of Concentration Determination

Whilst the common practice for absolute concentration determination in a lab is titration, there are countless benefits for those switching to digital density measurement. Various challenges in a modern lab, such as high fluctuation of staff without a background in chemistry or the need for saving time or consumables, can be easily addressed.


For the sake of product characterization, the concentration determination of binary mixtures is an omnipresent need whenever a liquid product is produced, traded, or consumed. From the very first day in chemical studies at universities, the method of choice for this purpose is titration and this dogma is later spread into industrial applications by the alumni.

Whereas in education there is plenty of time available to obtain a measured result, this is the key pain point for an industrial lab. Of course, the measured results have to be highly precise but – in contrast to a lab at universities – also delivered quickly, which is at least as important.

Titration – good but challenging

Titration is a so-called absolute method when it comes to product characterization of binary mixtures; i.e. the primary result is a concentration value.

The liquid product under investigation is slowly mixed with a standard solution of known concentration until the neutralization point is detected. Sometimes it even has to be diluted prior to that process. This already reveals that a skilled person is required and equipment such as glass vessels, burettes, and pipettes has to be very precise. Also the measurement setup is suitable for a limited range only; i.e. with a setup for samples from 0 %w/w to 10 %w/w of a chemical substance, a higher concentrated sample with, for example, 80 %w/w to 90 %w/w cannot be characterized without modifying the measurement setup. Often, if the sample under investigation is hazardous, such as an acid, the required standard solution, for example base, can be hazardous, too.

To sum up, titration is an absolute method that can give precise concentration readings if the operator is skilled, the required glassware is precise, and if it is not important to be fast.

Density – quick and straightforward

Thanks to the direct and close relationship of concentration to physical quantities such as density, it is possible to characterize an unknown sample if this relationship is well known. This is the case for virtually any chemical substance.

The obvious advantages of modern digital density meters are their ease of use, fast results, and high precision. However, the primary measured result is a density reading and not a concentration, which is subsequently only calculated based on density but not directly measured. This makes density an indirect method which does not require skilled operators or vast amounts of consumables and also the required sample volume of only 1 mL is sufficient to determine the concentration within the full range from 0 %w/w to 100 %w/w.

Modern data processing and automatic sample handling equipment increases safety and efficiency even further when using digital density meters to determine the concentration of liquids.

In a reasonable symbiosis of titrators and density meters it is possible to boost efficiency in a lab to the next level. Next to the absolute method of titration, routine measurements are carried out with fast and precise density meters. In this way, the benefits of both methods can be utilized. Whereas one method gives absolute concentration readings but takes its time, the other – indirect – method quickly and easily calculates the precise results.

Do you want to learn more about modern concentration measurement?

Find concentration tables of more than 140 chemical substances below:

Ammonium Chloride
Ammonium Sulfate
Barium Chloride
Barium Chloride Hydrate
Cadmium Chloride
Cadmium Sulfate
Calcium Chloride
Calcium Chloride Hydrate
Cesium Chloride
Cobaltous Chloride
Cobaltous Chloride Hydrate
Cupric Sulfate
Cupric Sulfate Hydrate
Dipotassium Phosphate
Dipotassium Phosphate Hydrate
Disodium Phosphate
Disodium Phosphate Hydrate
Ferric Chloride
Ferric Chloride Hydrate
Lanthanum Nitrate
Lanthanum Nitrate Hydrate
Lithium Chloride
Magnesium Chloride
Magnesium Chloride Hydrate
Magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium Sulfate Hydrate
Manganous Sulfate
Manganous Sulfate Hydrate
Monopotassium Phosphate
Monosodium Phosphate
Monosodium Phosphate Hydrate
Nickel Sulfate
Nickel Sulfate Hydrate
Potassium Bicarbonate
Potassium Biphthalate
Potassium Bromide
Potassium Carbonate
Potassium Carbonate Hydrate
Potassium Chloride
Potassium Chromate
Potassium Dichromate
Potassium Ferricyanide
Potassium Ferrocyanide
Potassium Ferrocyanide Hydrate
Potassium Iodide
Potassium Nitrate
Potassium Oxalate
Potassium Oxalate Hydrate
Potassium Permanganate
Potassium Sulfate
Potassium Thiocyanate
Silver Nitrate
Sodium Acetate
Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Bromide
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Carbonate Hydrate
Sodium Chloride
Sodium Citrate
Sodium Citrate Hydrate
Sodium Dichromate
Sodium Dichromate Hydrate
Sodium Ferrocyanide
Sodium Ferrocyanide Hydrate
Sodium Molybdate
Sodium Molybdate Hydrate
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Sulfate
Sodium Sulfate Hydrate
Sodium Tartrate
Sodium Tartrate Hydrate
Sodium Thiocyanate
Sodium Thiosulfate
Sodium Thiosulfate Hydrate
Sodium Tungstate
Sodium Tungstate Hydrate
Strontium Chloride
Strontium Chloride Hydrate
Trisodium Phosphate
Trisodium Phosphate Hydrate
Zinc Sulfate Anhydrate
Zinc Sulfate Hydrate

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